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教育扶贫的微观人力资本积累效应
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TitleOn the Human Capital Accumulation Effects from Poverty Alleviation through Education Program  
作者赵颖,石智雷,刘河庆  
AuthorZhao Ying,Shi Zhilei and Liu Heqing  
作者单位香港岭南大学社会科学院;中南财经政法大学公管学院;中山大学社会学与人类学学院 
OrganizationZhongnan University of Economics and Law;Sun Yat-sen University 
作者Emailzhaoying0504@gmail.com;zlshi2011@zuel.edu.cn; 
中文关键词教育扶贫;教育质量;起点公平;长期效应 
Key WordsPoverty alleviation through education; Education Quality; Justice in the beginning; Long term Effects 
内容提要教育扶贫是一种精准扶贫方式。迄今为止,中国已经实施多项教育扶贫工程,但缺乏就宏观工程对微观个体人力资本积累效应的科学评估。本文以1995~2000年第一期国家贫困地区义务教育工程(下文简称“义务教育工程”)为外生冲击,使用中国劳动力动态调查(CLDS)的2012和2014年的跟踪调查数据,根据未公开的县级代码识别了政策实施的具体县级单位,由此评估了教育扶贫对微观个体的长期人力资本积累效应。研究发现:(1)义务教育工程弥补了义务教育法普及义务教育年限的不足,增加了贫困地区学生受教育的机会,在绝对和相对层面增加了贫困地区个体的受教育年限,并显著减少了辍学和延迟读书的现象;(2)但这种义务教育的普及质量相对较差,且大部分劳动者没有更进一步接受初中以上的教育,导致在劳动力市场的专业技能相对较差;(3)该项政策提升劳动者受教育年限的有效性和劳动者个体决策的局限性,使劳动者的工资收入相对较低且增速较慢。随着社会平均受教育程度的不断提升,该项工程的积极效果正在逐渐衰减,进一步提升贫困地区的教育水平成为新时期精准扶贫的重要内容。 
AbstractPoverty alleviation through education is a targeted way to reduce the poor, yet lack of scientific evaluation of macro policies on individuals after enforcing several programs since 1990 in China. This paper adopts the First National Poverty Alleviation through Education Program (NPAEP, hereafter) from 1995 to 2000 as an exogenous shock to accomplish this goal, while utilizing the confidential county identification codes used in the China Labor Dynamic Survey (CLDS). The results show that: (1) NPAEP makes up the opportunity leaks in the rural counties thus promoting their chance to receive compulsory education as well as reduce the drop outs and the postponed both in absolute and relative ways; (2) this kind of education is of poor quality, and the individuals stopped to receive higher education after completing the junior schools, thus leads to the relatively low skills in the labor markets in the long run; (3) the draw backs of NPAEP and limitations of individuals restricts the amount and growth of their wages later in the labor markets. As the average education years continues rise, the NPAEP’s positive effects are fading. In order to accomplish the targeted poverty alleviation, further promotion of education years of the rural should be vital.  
文章编号WP1298 
登载时间2018-10-10 
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