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自然垄断与混合所有制改革——基于自然实验与成本函数分析法
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TitleNatural Monopoly and Mixed Ownership Reform: Based on Natural Experiment and Cost Function Analysis Method  
作者陈林  
AuthorChen Lin  
作者单位暨南大学产业经济研究院 
OrganizationJinan University 
作者Emailcharlielinchen@qq.com 
中文关键词混合所有制改革 自然垄断 成本函数 自然实验 三重差分法 
Key WordsEconomic System Reform; Mixed Ownership; Natural Monopoly; Cost Function; Triple Difference Method 
内容提要混合所有制改革是当前理论探讨的热点,但很少有研究能够回答,改革应该如何推进的现实问题。而中共十八届三中全会决议等改革战略已针对城市公用行业等自然垄断领域,提出了具体的改革纲领。那么,自然垄断领域应该如何推进混合所有制改革,或者说,混合所有制改革应优先在哪些公用行业推进?为此,本文基于威廉?鲍莫尔创立的成本函数分析法,使用1998-2008年全国规模以上城市公用企业数据,剔除产品价格因素的影响,测算出行业层面的自然垄断属性和企业层面的全要素生产率,并以基于自然实验的三重差分法,对自然垄断、混合所有制改革与企业生产效率之间的关系进行了实证检验。结果表明:1)在统计意义上,混合所有制改革不能显著提升自然垄断环节的企业全要素生产率;2)混合所有制改革不应该在全国范围和所有公用行业内“一窝蜂”地推进,这种不区分自然垄断与可竞争程度的改革尝试存在政策不确定性;3)相对于自然垄断环节,混合所有制改革后竞争性环节的生产效率将会得到更显著和更大的提升,体制改革的“政策红利”更大。因此,混合所有制改革应优先在竞争性环节开展。 
Abstract“Feeling invisible stones across a river” is a good summary of China’s institutional change’s experience since the reform and opening up. From the establishment of nationalization and planned economic system in the early days of the founding of New China to the establishment of the contract system and market economy system in the initial stage of reform and opening up, China’s institutional changes have always been in a discontinuous state. From the perspective of institutional change theory, this discontinuous institutional change’s economic performance is more uncertain than that of gradual institutional change. Therefore, changes in the performance caused by sudden changes in the system are often unexpected, which seems to have become the successful experience of China's economy’s rapid growth in the past thirty years: China has gone an unusual way through feeling invisible stones. However, with the aging of the old system, the institutional system becomes more and more massive. The marginal revenue that each single unsystematic institutional change can bring is naturally getting smaller and smaller. At the end of 2013, the central committee of the communist party of China issued the report “The decision on comprehensively deepening reform about some major issues”, attempting to make a fundamental change, i.e. designing a systematic new system for urban utilities: state-owned capital must keep holding in the industry of natural monopoly whose mixed ownership reform should be cautious and mixed ownership reform’s priority object is competitive segment without natural monopoly. Academic scholars have been in long-term focus on the discussion about whether it’s necessary to carry mixed ownership reform. But few studies can answer practical questions about how reform should proceed. So how should the natural monopoly industry proceed with the reform of mixed ownership, or which urban utilities should mixed ownership reform in priority be carried in? To make it, based on cost function analysis founded by William Baumol, this paper firstly uses a panel data from 1998 to 2008 which includes national urban public enterprises above designated size to measure attributes of natural monopoly in industry level and total factor productivity in enterprise level, and then sort out a sample consisting of those firms that have experienced early property rights reform and become mixed ownership enterprises. Finally, this paper empirically tests the relationship among natural monopoly, mixed ownership reform, and the production efficiency of enterprises through triple difference method based on natural experiment. The main conclusions of this paper are as follows: 1) in the natural monopoly link of urban utilities, the mixed ownership reform can’t significantly improve the production efficiency of enterprises; 2) the traditional DID model wouldn’t verify the remarkable achievements of the mixed ownership reform if natural monopoly and competitive link weren’t distinguished and the way of carrying mixed ownership reform without any distinguishing contains much policy uncertainty; 3) in the competitive link without natural monopoly, the mixed ownership reform has a significant positive effect on the productivity of municipal utilities. Compared with the natural monopoly, the production efficiency of the competitive link will be significantly improved after the reform of mixed ownership and the “policy dividend” of system reform will be greater. Therefore, the reform of mixed-ownership in urban utilities should be carried in the competition link without natural monopoly. The key in the reform of mixed ownership is to determine the natural monopoly property in specific city and specific public utilities. This work needs to be started with cost data, so the accuracy and openness of cost data is crucial. Therefore, this paper suggests that the cost data of city utilities must be made publicly available to government industry management departments, which can be promoted through combining the recent legislative work. The marginal contribution of this paper lies in taking the mixed ownership reform into the framework of natural monopoly theory and specifically distinguishes its heterogeneity effect between monopolistic link and competitive link and furthermore gives some policy suggestions on how to carry mixed ownership reform. This paper’s studies may help provide inspiration and method reference in promoting natural monopoly theory’s application in state-owned enterprises’ reform.  
文章编号WP1280 
登载时间2018-06-05 
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