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地方财政压力与企业税收庇护——理论模型及来自中国的经验证据
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TitleSub-national Fiscal Pressure and Tax Sheltering for Enterprises——Theory and Empirical Evidence from China  
作者陈思霞 许文立 黄端  
AuthorChen Sixia,Xu Wenli and Huang Duan  
作者单位中南财经政法大学;武汉大学 
OrganizationZhongnan University of Economics and Law, Faculty of Public Finance and Taxation;Wuhan University, Economics and Management School 
作者Emailsixia_chen04@126.com;xuweny87@163.com 
中文关键词财政压力 税收庇护 税收分成 倍差法 
Key WordsFiscal Pressure; Tax Sheltering; Tax Sharing Ratio; Difference in Difference 
内容提要本文内生刻画了地方财政压力的决定过程,并基于此分析了地方财政压力下的最优税收结构决策。理论模型显示,在均衡增长路径下,地方财政压力不会对中央政府分享更多的所得税实际税率产生影响,而会导致地方专享税的销售税实际税率的提高。我们进一步基于中国2002年所得税分享改革的外生冲击,利用1997—2012年的中国上市公司数据对上述假说进行了实证检验。研究结果表明,财政压力下,地方政府显著降低了自身分成比例高的公司营业税的税收庇护,而分成比例低的公司所得税税收庇护变化不明显。本文的研究为地方政府“援助之手假说”提供了新的经验证据,同时研究也表明,要减税降费、进一步减轻企业负担,政策落地的关键在于如何保障和激励地方政府减税政策的执行力。 
AbstractIn this paper, we make a theoretic model to analyze the way that sub-national fiscal pressure is formed and make out the optimal tax strategy to relieve this pressure. In the theoretic model, it shows that sub-national fiscal pressure doesn’t have an obvious impact on the real income tax rate whose revenue is owned mainly by central government. However, it increases the real sales tax rate whose taxation are owned all by local governments. We mainly certify the hypothesis applying with the public companies’ data from 1997-2012 by using a difference-in-difference model based on the Income Taxation Sharing Reform in 2002. It finds that local governments weaken the tax sheltering for business tax as local governments can fully enjoy a high proportion of the taxation under fiscal pressure. While for the corporate tax whose revenue is mainly owned by central government, there is little change in the tax sheltering after tax reform. This paper provides extra evidence to prove the existing of “Helping Hand” after the tax decentralization reform. It is also instructive to remind us that it really matters to ensure that local governments are correctly encouraged to carry out those tax reduction policies strictly if tax burden reductions are meant to be. 
文章编号WP1228 
登载时间2017-10-11 
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