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中国国有企业出口离“竞争中立”有多远?
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TitleThe export of Chinese state-owned enterprises:How far is it from "Competitive Neutrality"?  
作者唐宜红 姚曦  
AuthorTang Yihong and Yao Xi  
作者单位中央财经大学;北京大学光华管理学院 
OrganizationSchool of International Trade and Economics, Central University of Finance and Economics;Guanghua School of Management, Peking University 
作者Emailtanguibe@126.com;yaoxi_mail@163.com 
中文关键词国有企业 竞争中立 公平竞争 出口 
Key WordsState-owned Enterprises; Competitive Neutrality; Fair Competition; Export 
内容提要“竞争中立”规则强调国有企业和私营企业之间的公平竞争,该规则使得国有企业的国际市场公平竞争问题备受关注。本文构建了考察中国国有企业出口是否偏离“竞争中立”的定量分析体系,并基于中国工业企业数据库提供了实证证据。本文发现,我国国有企业出口离“竞争中立”还存在一定的差距。在2003-2007连续五年中,控制了行业差异之后,中国国有出口企业的利润率平均低于非国有出口企业,其主要原因是相对较低的全要素生产率和较低的管理效率,而事实上国有企业仍然能够出口。本文进一步基于出口选择和出口规模模型,考察了何种“不公平优势”促进了国有企业的出口,结果表明,融资和国内垄断是促进中国国有企业出口的重要优势,它们既提高了国有企业进入出口市场的概率,也促进了已经出口的国有企业扩大其出口规模;另外,国有企业享有较高的生产性补贴,有利于提高其出口概率;而国有企业的实际税率平均较高,对于国有企业出口没有起到促进作用。 
AbstractThe rule of "Competitive Neutrality", which aims to maintain a level playing field for both state-owned and private enterprises, has gained great attention recently in international market. This paper suggests a quantitative analytical framework to investigate whether and how Chinese exporting SOEs deviate from Competitive Neutrality, and provide empirical evidences, by employing data from Annual Enterprise Survey conducted by the National Bureau of Statistics of China. Firstly, we find that, from 2003-2007, after controlling of industry differences, the profit margin of exporting SOEs was lower than exporting non-SOEs on average. And it was mainly because of SOEs' lower Total Factor Productivity (TFP) and lower management efficiency. We secondly use jointly estimated export choice model and export volume model to investigate which unfair competitive advantages promote SOEs' export. We find that, financing facility and domestic monopoly power were two key advantages enjoyed by SOEs. They improved both SOEs' export probability and export volume. SOEs enjoyed higher production subsidies which improved their export probability. Moreover, SOEs' real tax rate was higher than non-SOEs on average. tax rate didn't promote SOEs' export. 
文章编号WP1209 
登载时间2017-07-28 
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