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认知能力与创业——来自中国的经验发现
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TitleCognitive Abilities and Entrepreneurship: Evidence from China  
作者李涛 朱俊兵 伏霖  
AuthorLi Tao, Zhu Junbing and Fu Lin  
作者单位中央财经大学经济学院;德国柏林自由大学 
OrganizationCentral University of Finance and Economics; Free University of Berlin 
作者Emaileconlitao@gmail.com、fulinthu@126.com;zhujunbing1990@sina.com 
中文关键词认知能力 创业 行业管制 
Key WordsEntrepreneur; Cognitive Abilities; Institutional Environment 
内容提要本文利用中国家庭追踪调查数据实证分析了个人的认知能力对其创业的影响。考虑了内生性问题的回归结果显示,总体而言,不论是否区分具体的创业类型,个人的综合认知能力对其是否创业不存在显著的影响。但这种影响会因行业管制水平不同而异:在管制水平较高的行业中,个人更高的综合认知能力会显著降低其创业概率;但在管制水平较低的行业中,个人更高的综合认知能力却会显著提高其创业概率。就具体的认知能力而言,不论是否区分具体的创业类型,个人的记忆力对其是否创业不存在显著影响,数字能力的作用却总是显著为正,而字词能力的影响相对复杂。行业管制水平会带来字词能力和数学能力对不同类型创业的异质性影响,但并不稳健;而记忆力对各种创业类型的稳健且不显著的影响不会因所在行业管制水平不同而发生变化。相关结论表明,减少不必要的政府管制,优化市场竞争环境,有利于释放认知能力对创业的推动作用。 
AbstractThis paper uses Chinese Family Panel Studies (CFPS) in 2010 and 2012 to explore the effect of cognitive abilities on entrepreneurship. Overall, the results show no significant influence of the cognitive abilities on entrepreneurship regardless of different types of entrepreneurship. But we argue that government regulation is an important determinant of individual decisions to expand business and also impacts the effect of the cognitive abilities on entrepreneurship. We find a negative correlation between the cognitive abilities and entrepreneurship in tightly-regulated industries, and a positive correlation in that of loosely-regulated industries. Furthermore, we study the effect of three dimensions of cognitive abilities on entrepreneurship. The effects of character recognition and memory ability on entrepreneurship are different between tightly-regulated industries and loosely-regulated industries, but the results are not robust. While the counting ability shows no significant effect on entrepreneurship regardless of different levels of government regulation. Our results suggest that it is vital for government to reduce unnecessary government regulation for expanding entrepreneurship. 
文章编号WP1159 
登载时间2017-02-24 
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