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网络与文化双重视角下的宗族与创业:影响与机制
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TitleClan and Entrepreneurship from the Perspectives of both Network and Cultural Norms: Effects and Mechanism  
作者张川川 李涛  
AuthorZhang Chuanchuan and Li Tao  
作者单位中央财经大学经济学院 
OrganizationSchool of Economics, Central University of Finance and Economics 
作者Emailccz.zhang@gmail.com;econlitao@vip.sina.com 
中文关键词宗族网络 宗族文化 个体创业 
Key WordsClan Network; Clan Culture; Entrepreneurship 
内容提要宗族从网络和文化两个层面对个体创业产生影响。本文使用中国家庭动态调查数据(CFPS2010)和2005年全国1%人口抽样调查数据,估计了宗族对个体创业的影响,并检验了宗族的网络效应和文化效应。实证结果显示,作为宗族代理变量的家族族谱和宗族祠堂同个体创业概率显著正相关。在采用工具变量估计和极大似然估计解决OLS估计可能存在的内生性问题后,实证结果仍然显示宗族促进而非抑制了个人创业活动。然而,区分不同层级创业类型的研究显示,宗族仅对较初级的个体工商业经营有促进作用,对发展程度较高的私营企业活动无显著影响。进一步研究显示,宗族的社会网络效应是其推动个体创业的主要渠道,个体信念、社会信任等文化层面的作用渠道均未得到经验证据的支持。最后,分地区的分析显示,宗族对个体创业的积极作用在市场化和经济开放程度较低的非沿海开放城市更为明显,在沿海开放城市宗族对个体创业活动反而存在一定程度的抑制作用。 
AbstractClan has both the network attribute and cultural attribute and through both it affects the entrepreneurship. Using data from the baseline survey of China Family Panel Studies (CFPS 2010) and China’s 2005 1% Population Sample Survey, this paper tests empirically the role of clan in entrepreneurship, and examines both the network effects and cultural effects of clan. Empirical results demonstrate that the presence of clan measured by either the genealogy book or ancestral temple is positively related to the probability of starting private business at the individual level. After resolving the potential endogenous bias using an instrumental variable approach, the paper shows that the presence of clan significantly increases the probability of starting private business. However, further studies show that only entrepreneurship measured as self-employment is positively affected by the presence of clan, the presence of clan has no statistically significant effects on the probability of starting private enterprise. The paper then investigates several potential channels from clan to entrepreneurship and finds that the presence of clan boosts entrepreneurship mainly through facilitating the informal financing, and there are no evidence supporting the cultural belief channel or social trust channel, which are both popular in previous theoretical studies. Finally, regression results by region suggest that clan only increases the probability of starting private business in regions with lower development level of marketization and economic openness, while clan actually has negative effects on entrepreneurship in regions with high level of marketization and economic openness.  
文章编号WP1015 
登载时间2016-01-08 
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