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形式公平与运行效率的替代效应——基于实质公平的养老改革
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TitleThe Substitution Effect between Formal Fairness and Operational Efficiency——The Pension Reform which Based on Substantial  
作者邹铁钉 叶航  
AuthorZou Tieding and Ye Hang  
作者单位浙江大学经济学院 
OrganizationCollege of Economics and Interdisciplinary Center for Social Sciences ,Zhejiang University 
作者Emailzoutieding@163.com;yehang@china.com 
中文关键词养老保险 公平 效率 统账结合制 
Key WordsPension; Fairness; Efficiency; Commission Account 
内容提要本文构建了一个有效率保证的公平决策模型,对养老保险体系在形式公平和运行效率之间的替代效应及其在个人维度和制度维度上的实质公平性进行了分析,并利用中国的数据对中国养老保险体系进行了经验检验。研究发现,劳动生产率增长率是影响替代效应强弱的关键因素,考虑该因素后的替代效应要比不考虑的情形强。基金制在所有养老保险体系中的替代效应最强,统账结合制次之,现收现付制最小。劳动生产率上的个体异质性较大时,实施差异化的缴费政策有利于提高养老保险体系在个人维度上的实质公平性。人口老龄化趋势较为严重时,降低统筹比率有利于提高养老保险体系在制度维度上的实质公平性。对中国养老保险体系的经验检验显示,单从投资收益率上看,基金制在个人维度和制度维度上的实质公平性要优于现收现付制,但其在提高低收入者的相对养老福利和缩小日益扩大的贫富差距方面却不如现收现付制。所以,适当降低现收现付制的比重有利于提高养老保险体系在个人维度和制度维度上的实质公平性,但必须把握好度,否则会适得其反。 
AbstractThis paper employed a fair decision model to analyze the substitution effect and substantial fairness for pension system, for which has a guaranteed efficiency. Then we give a test to the China’s pension system about this problem with Chinese data. The results showed that:1)The growth rates of labor productivity play a key role in substitution effect, the substitution effect will be greater when we considering the growth rate of labor productivity than without; 2)Full-funded has the biggest substitution effect,the second is commission account, and the last is pay-as-you-go; 3)When the individual heterogeneity to labor productivity is very big, a differentiated tax policy will be good to substantial fairness from individual aspect; 4)when there is a serious aging problem, some kind of cuts in redistribution will be good to substantial fairness from system aspect;5)The test results indicated that, full-funded is a dominated strategy to pay-as-you-go in promoting substantial fairness from system and individual aspect, but a weakly dominated strategy to pay-as-you-go in reducing the increasing gap between rich and poor, so a radical transition from pay-as-you-go to full-funded is not a reasonable choice.  
文章编号WP554 
登载时间2013-11-12 
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