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生产率异质性、最低工资标准和我国企业的出口行为
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TitleProductivity Heterogeneity, Minimum Wage and Firms’ Exports in China  
作者孙楚仁 马双 田国强  
AuthorChuren Sun Shuang Ma and Guoqiang Tian  
作者单位上海对外贸易学院国际经贸研究所;上海财经大学经济学院;西南财经大学西南财经大学 
OrganizationShanghai Institute of Foreign Trade;Southwest University of Finance and Economics;Shanghai University of Finance and Economics 
作者Emailsunchuren@gmail.com;shuangma2@gmail.com 
中文关键词最低工资 异质性企业 生产率 出口行为 
Key WordsMinimum wage; Heterogeneous firm; Productivity; Export 
内容提要从机制和定量上弄清楚最低工资对企业出口行为的影响对于解决我国新《劳动法》的实施所引发的争论以及为政府相关政策制定和调整都具有重要的参考意义。然而,相关的理论和实证分析却很少。本文构建了一个包含企业异质性和最低工资在内的两国、两要素贸易模型,从理论上考察了最低工资和企业生产率对企业出口行为的影响。分析表明,最低工资的提高将通过选择效应(即迫使低效率企业退出出口市场)降低企业的出口概率,通过劳动力成本提升所导致的价格效应降低企业的出口额。而企业出口概率和出口额都随着其生产率增加而增加。利用中国制造业工业企业1998-2007数据和作者搜集的我国相关城市的最低工资相关数据,本文估计了最低工资和企业生产率对我国企业出口行为的实际影响。在控制了各种因素之后,本文发现,最低工资增加一倍,企业出口概率降低0.011,而出口额降低8.6%。生产率增加一倍,企业出口可能性降低0.016,而出口额增加75.6%。 
AbstractIt's of sense to understand the mechanism and the quantitative impacts of minimum wage on firms' exports for understanding the effects caused by the execution of the "New 'Labor Laws'" and for governments' policy making and adjustments. However, few theoretical and empirical researches have been done to it. This paper proposes a two-country trade unequilibrium model with heterogeneous firms and minimum wage to investigate the influences of minimum wage and productivity on firms’ exports. It shows that the influence of minimum wage on firms’ exporting probability and foreign sales is negative while that of firms' productivity on their exports is negative. Econometric analysis based on the survey data of Chinese Industrial Enterprises as well as the data of minimum wages collected ourselves within 1998 and 2007 verifies these predictions. Quantitatively, it shows that the elasticity of minimum wage on firms' exporting sales is -8.6% while that of firms' productivity is 75.6%, and it also shows that firms' exporting possibility decreases by 0.011 and increases by 0.016 when minimum wage and their productivity increases by 100%, respectively, holding the other variables constant. 
文章编号WP164 
登载时间2011-12-23 
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